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Department Courses for Graduate Credit

4001 Physical Chemistry (3)

4015 Conservation Biology (3)

4016 Introduction to Insect Physiology (3)
Prereq.: 12 sem. hrs of Entomology or Biological Sciences; 1 yr. of Organic Chemistry or Biochemistry. 2 hrs lecture; 3 hrs. lab. Also offered as ENTM 4016.

4020 Taxonomy and Ecology of Wetland Plants (3)
1 hr. lecture; 4 hrs. lab; extended field trips. Also offered as RNR4020. Field service fee. Taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and economic significance of wetland plants in Louisiana.

4024 Plant Anatomy (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Structure and development of vascular plants; emphasis on seed plants.

4034 Morphology of Vascular Plants (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Field service fee. Phylogenetic survey of plant form and development among vascular plants from ferns and related forms through gymnosperms and angiosperms.

4041 Plant Taxonomy (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Principles of identification, classification, and nomenclature; their application to select groups of vascular plants.

4042 Projects in Plant Taxonomy (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4041 or equivalent. 1 hr. conference; 4 hrs. lab. Individual instruction; student responsible for selecting a plant taxonomy project related to interests.

4052 Phycology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Also offered as OCS 4052. Field service fee. Freshwater and marine algae, including morphology, biology, ecological role, and economic significance.

4054 Introductory Mycology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 3 hrs lecture; 3 hrs. lab. Same as PLHL 4054. Developmental morphology, taxonomy, and adaptive strategies of fungi; interactions of fungi with plants and animals.

4055 Flora of Louisiana (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Two Saturday field trips. Major plant groups and communities of Louisiana and the Gulf region; field and laboratory identification, natural history, ecology, environmental issues relating to natural vegetation, and conservation of natural areas.

4056 Lichenology and Bryology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Field service fee. Lichen and bryophyte morphology, physiology, ecology, and systematics; practice in identification.

4087 Basic Biochemistry (4)
F, S, Su Prereq.: BIOL 2153 and CHEM 2262 or 2462.Credit will not be given for BIOL 4087 and either 4093 or 4094. Cellular macromolecules; production and utilization of energy by the cell; major metabolic pathways and their control; molecular biology.

4090 Marine Microbiology (3)
See OCS 4090.

4093 General Biochemistry I (3)
F Prereq.: BIOL 2153 and CHEM 2262 or 2462. Credit will not be given for BIOL 4087 and either 4093 or 4094. Structure and function of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates; enzymology; respiration.

4094 General Biochemistry II (3)
S Prereq.: BIOL 4093. Credit will not be given for BIOL 4087 and either 4093 or 4094. Metabolic pathways; nucleic acid structure; flow of genetic information; regulation of gene expression; recombinant DNA.

4104 Histology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 3090 and 3156, permission of department. 2 hrs lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Morphological basis of function im mammalian tissues and organs.

4105 Parasitology (3)
F, S Prereq.: BIOL 2153. Biology og animal parasites; emphasis on important human parasites.

4106 Parasitology Laboratory (1)
F, S Prereq.: credit or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 4105. 3hrs. lab. Field and laboratory investigations in parasitology.

4110 Introductory Microbial Physiology (3)
F, S Prereq.: BIOL 2051 and CHEM 2261 or 2461. Concepts of bacterial nutrition, metabolism, adaptation, and genetics, as related to growth and environment.

4111 Microbial Physiology Laboratory (2)
Prereq.: Credit or concurrent registration in BIOL 4110. 6 hrs. lab. Laboratory techniques used to study growth, metabolism, and cellular control of micro-organisms.

4123 Immunology (3)
F Prereq.: BIOL 2051. BIOL 3090 recommended. Molecular and cellular basis of innate and cell-mediated immunity.

4124 Microbial Pathogens (3)
S Prereq.: BIOL 4123. Survey of pathogenic organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites; host responses to pathogens.

4125 Prokaryotic Diversity (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 2051. Biology of bacteria and archaea; evolution, diversity assessment, systematics, ecology; emphasis on molecular approaches.

4126 Methods in Microbial Diversity (4)
S Prereq.: BIOL 4125 and consent of instructor. 1 hr. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Classical and molecular methods used to study microbial diversity.

4127 Immunopathogenics Laboratory (3)
S Prereq.: BIOL 4123 and concurrent enrollment or credit in BIOL 4124. Laboratory methods of immunology and microbial pathogenic biology.

4132 Eukaryotic Molecular Genetics (3)
F Prereq.: BIOL 2153, and 4087 or 4093. Molecular genetics, primarily in higher eukaryotes; gene structure and packaging in chromosomes; gene transcription and mRNA processing; translation; gene regulation; genetics in development; genetics of cancer; immunogenetics; genetic engineering in eukaryotes.

4141 Mammalogy (4)
F Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Biology of mammals; origins, adaptive radiations, and ecology.

4142 Ornithology (4)
S Prereq.: BIOL 2153. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. lab and field work; permission of department. Field service fee. Biology of birds; emphasis on ecology, behaviour, and evolution.

4145 Ichthyology (4)
F Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs. lecture; 6 hrs. lab and field work. Also offered as RNR 4145. Field service fee. Biology of fishes; evolution, classification, and ecology.

4146 Herpetology (4)
S Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 2 hrs. lecture; 6 hrs. lab and field work. Field service fee. Taxonomy and natural history of amphibians and reptiles.

4147 Biology of Eukaryotic Microorganisms (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 2051. 2 hrs. lecture; 4hrs. lab. Molecular biology, physiology, genetics, morphology, development, and taxonomy of the yeasts, molds, slime molds, algae, and protozoa.

4149 Aquatic Invertebrate Ecology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 1202 and 1209. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. lab. Molecular biology. physiology, genetics, morphology, development, and taxonomy of the yeasts, molds, slime molds, algae, and protozoa.

4154 Invertebrate Zoology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 2153. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. lab. Field service fee. Biology of the invertebrates; phylogeny, functional morphology.

4155 Environmental Physiology (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 2153. Physiological adaptations of animals to physical and chemical parameters of the environment.

4156 Environmental Physiology Laboratory (1)
Prereq.: credit or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 4155 or equivalent. 3 hrs. lab. Laboratory exercises in environmental physiology.

4157 Cellular Physiology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 2153 and CHEM 2262. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs, lab. Physiological systems in cells and tissues.

4158 Endocrinology (3)
F Prereq.: BIOL 2153 and CHEM 2262. Physiology of neural and hormonal regulation in vertebrates.

4160 Vertebrate Physiology (3)
F, S Prereq.: BIOL 3090 or 4087 or 4093 and CHEM 2262 or 2462. Principles of vertebrate systems physiology; emphasis on mammalian systems.

4161 Vertebrate Physiology Laboratory (1)
F, S Prereq.: credit or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 4160 and EXST 2201. 3 hrs. lab. Laboratory exercises in systems physiology.

4162 Food Microbiology (4)
See FDSC 4162.

4163 Industrial Microbiology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 4110 or equivalent. 2 hrs. lecture; 4 hrs lab. Microbes used in industrial processes such as production of chemicals, antibiotics, and vitamins.

4172 Plant Microtechnique (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4024 or equivalent. 1 hr. lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Technique and practice in making permanent slides.

4177 Neurobiology (3)
F, S Prereq.: BIOL 3090 or 4160, and CHEM 2262 or 2462. Principles of organization and function in nervous systems; molecular basis of behavior.

4190 Introductory Virology (3)
V Prereq.: BIOL 2051. Viruses and their host cells; biochemistry and molecular biology of viral infections.

4194 History of Biology (2)
Prereq.: senior standing or consent of instructor.

4200 Microbial Morphogenesis (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 2051 and 2153. Cellular morphogenesis in microorganisms and its control by differential gene expression; physiological changes during microbial differentiation; adaptive roles and practical applications.

4210 Biological Modelling and Data Analysis (3)
Prereq.: Math 1550, 8 sem. hrs. of introductory biology. 2 hrs. lecture; 2 hrs. lab. Modelling of biological systems; design and analysis of biological experiments; presentation of data.

4246 Microbial Genetics (3)
F,S Prereq.: BIOL 2051 and 2153. BIOL 4087 or 4093 recommended. Microbial genetic principles: mutation, conjugation, transformation, recombination, transduction, gene expression, molecular biology of bacteriophage and plasmids; recombinant DNA technology.

4253 Principles of Ecology (3)
F,S Prereq.: BIOL 1202, 1209 and MATH 1552 or EXST 2201. Fundamental ecological principles governing the structure and function of populations, communities, and ecosystems; comparative habitat ecology.

4254 Principles of Ecology Laboratory (1)
F, S Prereq.: credit or registration in BIOL 4253. 3 hrs. lab. Field service fee. Laboratory exercises in ecology.

4256 Microbial Ecology and Nutrient Cycling in Soils (4)
See AGRO 4056/EMS 4056.

4261 Microbiology of Water, Sewage, and Industrial Wastes (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 4110. 2 hrs. lecture; 4 hrs. lab.

4262 Marine Communities (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 2153. Marine biology; ecology of benthic, planktonic, nektonic, estuarine, oceanic, coral, and mangrove communities emphasis on Louisiana's coastal environments.

4263 Marine communities Laboratory (1)
Prereq.: credit or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 4262 or equivalent. 3 hrs. lab. Field service fee. Laboratory experiences in marine communities.

4270 Animal Behavior (4)
S Prereq.: BIOL 2153. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. lab. Students are responsible for personal expenses associated with mandatory field trips. Introduction to the field of animal behavior with emphasis on how research in this area is performed. Topics include physical, environmental, and physiological effects on behavior as well as possible evolutionary causes of present-day behaviors.

4299 Genetics of the Evolutionary Process (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 2153 or equivalent. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. discussion/lab. Principles of microevolution; emphasis on genetic and ecological mechanisms relevant to process of evolution.

4308 Plants in Coastal Environments (3)
See OCS 4308

4385 Biochemistry Laboratory (3)
F, S Prereq.: credit or registration in BIOL 4087 or 4093. 1 hr. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Techniques including chemistry of amino acids and proteins; purification, immunochemistry, kinetics of enzymes; protein biosynthesis; nucleic acid chemistry; properties and restriction mapping of plasmids and recombinant DNA; spectrophotometry, chromatography, electrophoresis, centrifugation, and radioisotope labeling.

4400 Molecular Genetics Laboratory (3)
S Prereq.: BIOL 2153 and 6 hrs. of biological sciences at the 4000 level or BIOL 4246 and 3 hrs. of biological sciences at the 4000 level. 1 hr. lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Current techniques used to genetically engineer microorganisms, study gene expression and DNA modification, and identify organisms by specific genetic alleles; computer analysis of DNA and protein sequences.

4444 Seed Physiology (3)
See PLHL 4444.

4450 Molecular Regulation of Cell Function (3)
F, S Prereq.: BIOL 4087 or 4093, and CHEM 2262 or 2462. BIOL 3090 recommended. Molecular organization of eukaryotic cells; gene structure and function; molecular regulation of signal transduction and cel cycle.

4596 Biophysics of Macromolecules (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4087 or 4093 and BIOL 4001 or credit or registration in CHEM 3492. Theory and application of physical techniques to the study of biological macromolecules; spectroscopy (UV-VIS absorption and flourescence, circular dichroism, IR, NMR, X-ray diffraction); helix-coil theory; theories of ligand binding.

4600 Topics in Marine Zoology (2-6)
Su Prereq.: 16 hrs. of biology or zoology including one laboratory course numbered above 3000. See also RNR 4600. May be taken for a max. of 9 sem. hrs. of credit when topics vary. Courses to be offered vary from year to year; additional information available from department. Intensive field study of a specific topic in marine zoology at the Louisiana University’s Marine Consortium field stations.

4653 Marine Phycology (4)
Su Prereq.: 12 hrs. in biological sciences, including some plant biology. Four weeks at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs, Mississippi.

4800 Selected Topics in Biological Sciences (2-4)
Prereq.: 16hrs. of biological sciences and permission of department. May be taken for a max. of 6 sem. hrs. of credit when topics vary.

6055 Flora of Louisiana for Teachers (4)
Prereq.: one year of biological sciences. 2 hrs. lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Student projects are required. Identification and natural history of native vegetation and plant communities of Louisiana.

6147 Selected Topics in Life Science (1-3)
Prereq.: BIOL 1001, 1002, 1005; or equivalent. May be taken for a max. of 6 sem. hrs. credit when topics vary. Specific areas of biological sciences; topics offered determined by recent advances in the field, needs of students, and availability of appropriate faculty.

7001 Tropical Ecology (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4253 or equivalent. Ecology, natural history, and biodiversity of tropical organisms, communities, and ecosystems, including plants, fungi, insects, reptiles, amphibians, birds, mammals, and fishes of tropical rain forests and tropical savannas.

7010 Plant Molecular Biology (3)
F Prereq.: BIOL 3060, 4093, and 4094 or equivalent. See PLHL 7010.

7013 Coevolution (3)
See ENTM 7013.

7014 Plant Stress Physiology (3)
See PLHL 7014.

7022 Marine Microbial Ecology (3)
See OCS 7020.

7025 Advanced Plant Anatomy (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4024 or equivalent. Analysis of meristematic activity and growth patterns in vascular plants; basis and mechanisms of differentiation and experimental studies of normal growth processes.

7032 Advanced Mycology: Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes (4)
See PLHL 7032.

7043 Advanced Plant Taxonomy (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 2153 or AGRI 2072, and BIOL 4041; or equivalent. 3 hrs. lab. Fundamentals of natural variation and evolution; taxonomic features of plant variation.

7044 Agrostology (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4041 or equivalent. 1 hr. lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Morphology, classification, identification, and economic importance of grasses and grasslike plants.

7056 Advanced Mycology: Lower Fungi (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 4054 or equivalent. 3 hrs. lecture;3 hrs. lab. Same as PLHL 7056. Taxonomy, biology, and ecology of flagellated fungi and zygomycetes; ultrastructural morphology, genetics, and pathogenicity; collection, isolation, and identification of fungi from a variety of substrates and habitats.

7061 b (3)
See PLHL 7061.

7063 Plant Metabolism (3)
See PLHL 7063.

7065 Transport Processes in Plants (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 3060. Also offered as PLHL 7065. Principles governing the transport of water, mineral nutrients, organic compounds and gases in plants; cellular through whole- plant levels of organization and physiological response.

7067 Selected Topics in Plant Physiology (2)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Same as PLHL 7067. Mineral nutrition, metabolism, growth and development, and herbicides.

7068 Current Literature in Plant Physiology (1)
See PLHL 7068.

7080 Population Ecology (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4253 or equivalent. Also offered as ENTM 7080. Advanced topics emphasizing animals in population growth and regulation; life histories; foraging behavior; agonism and territoriality; and group behavior.

7083 Community Ecology (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4153 or equivalent. Ecological processes of communities; predation, competition, mutualism, disturbance, succession, island biogeography, and diversity.

7093 Plant Population Biology (3)
Prereq.: BIOL4253 or equivalent. Plant population dynamics, reproductive systems, life histories, competition, niche theory, and interactions between plants and predators, pathogens, and symbionts.

7111 Systematic Biology (4)
Prereq.: 8 sem. hrs. of 4000-level biological science courses or equivalent; introductory statistics recommended. 3 hrs. lecture; 2 hrs. lab. Theoretical and empirical aspects of systematics and evolutionary biology.

7118 Ethology (4)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. 2 hrs. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. and field work. Evolutionary basis of animal behavior.

7120 Marine Ecology (3)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. 2 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. lab. and field work. Also offered as OCS 7317. Physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors affecting distribution of marine fauna; communities representative of each of the ecological subdivisions of the world's oceans treated with respect to species composition, food webs, and seasonal changes; human impact on the marine environment.

7125 Invertebrate-Microbial Interactions in Aquatic Environments (3)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. 2 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. lab. invertebrate-microbial interactions in aquatic food webs; ecological significance of mutualistic, parasitic, and commensal relationships.

7130 Environment Physiology of Estuarine Animals (4)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. lab. Effects of salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen on the physiology of estuarine fauna.

7148 Microbial Anatomy and Ultrastructure (2)
V Prereq.: BIOL 4110 or equivalent. Structure of various microbial forms.

7152 Advanced Vertebrate Anatomy (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 3152. 2 hrs. lecture; 6 hrs. lab.

7153 Mutagenensis (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 2153 and consent of instructor. Mechanisms of mutation; methods of detecting mutations; comparisons of effect of mutagenic agents among various test organisms.

7154 Advanced genetics Laboratory (3)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. 1 hr. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Experiments with Drosophila melanogaster; study of genetic and cytological variations due to deficiencies, duplications, inversions, rings, translocations, transpositions, compound chromosomes, and Y derivatives; classical genetic loci and loci controlling electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and other proteins used; stocks synthesized to meet specific requirements for mutational and biochemical research.

7155 Energy Transducing Membrane Proteins (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4110 and 4087 or 4093, or equivalent. Structure and function of energy transducing membrane proteins including bacteriorhodopsin, ATP synthase, cytochrome, oxidase, cytochrome b/c1 complexes, the bacterial reaction center, photosystem I and II and antennae pigment protein complexes.

7156 Experimental Embryology (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 3156 or equivalent. 2 hrs. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Field service fee. Classic and contemporary theory, techniques, experiments, and independent investigations concerning vertebrate and invertebrate development.

7157 Molecular Adaptation to the Environment (4)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. lab. Molecular and physiological mechanisms adapting organisms to environmental factors; emphasis on adaptations permitting organisms to inhabit a diversity of environments.

7160 Histochemistry and Cytochemistry (4)
Prereq.: 3 sem. hrs. of biochemistry or equivalent. 2 hrs. lecture; 6 hrs. lab.

7161 Histochemisty and Cytochemistry (4)
V Prereq.: BIOL 4110 or equivalent. Microbial systematics and ecology; emphasis on morphology and physiology of the higher bacteria.

7162 Molecular Biology of Microorganisms (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4146, and either BIOL 4110 or 4094; or equivalent. Synthesis, activity, and interactions of various molecular components of microbial cells; macromolecules and their relationship to cellular function and heredity.

7163 Advanced Technology of Molecular Biology I (3)
V Prereq.: credit or registration in BIOL 7280 or BIOL 7162. 1 hr. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Methods in recombinant DNA procedures; isolation of DNA from prokaryotic or eukaryotic sources; DNA cloning; restriction mapping and DNA sequencing.

7164 Advanced Technology of Molecular Biology II (3)
V Prereq.: credit or equivalent in BIOL 7163. 1 hr. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Methods in recombinant DNA procedures; isolation of DNA from prokaryotic or eukaryotic sources; DNA cloning; restriction mapping and DNA sequencing.

7171 Physiological Rhythms (3)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. 1 hr. lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Role of exogenous and endogenous rhythms in regulation of physiological systems.

7177 Neurosensory Physiology (4)
Prereq.: BIOl 4155 or 4157 or 4160. 2 hrs. lecture; 6 hrs. lab. Physiology of nerves and sensory receptors; vertebrate systems and independent laboratory investigation.

7220 Biochemistry and Toxicology of Metals (3)
S Prereq.: BIOL 4093, 4094; CHEM 2262. See ENVS 7220.

7250 Organelle Genetics (3)
Prereq.: BIOL 4094 and BIOL 2153; or equivalent. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. discussion/lab. Molecular genetic variation in natural populations; effects of selection, inbreeding, random drift, migration, and mutation on DNA and protein polymorphosisms; emphasis in lab on computer assisted manipulation and analysis of molecular data.

7253 Molecular Population Genetics (4)
Prereq.: BIOL 2153 or equivalent. 3 hrs. lecture; 3 hrs. discussion/lab. Molecular genetic variation in natural populations; effects of selection, inbreeding, random drift, migration, and mutation on DNA and protein polymorphisms; emphasis in lab on computer-assisted manipulation and analysis of molecular data.

7280 Nucleic Acids (3)
V Prereq.: BIOL 4094 or equivalent. Chemistry and biochemistry of nucleic acids; structure, expression, and regulation of genes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

7284 Proteins (3)
V Prereq.: CHEM 4491 or BIOL 4001; and BIOL 4093 or equivalent. Conformations of fibrous and globular proteins; their interactions with small and large molecules.

7285 Advanced Enzymology (3)
V Prereq.: one semester of physical chemistry and credit or registration in BIOL 4094. Principles involving action of enzymes on a molecular level; includes kinetics, inhibition, pH effects, active site, coenzymes, reaction mechanism, and protein stricture of enzymes.

7286 Seminar (1)
F, S May be repeated for a max of 6 sem. hrs. of credit. Reports on subjects of current interest in biological sciences.

7288 Lipids and Membranes (3)
V Prereq.: BIOL 4094. Chemistry and biochemistry of lipids and membranes; analytical methods for lipids; biosynthesis of complex lipids; organization and function of biological membranes.

7289 Biochemistry of Viruses (3)
V Prereq.: BIOL 4094 or equivalent. Also offered as VMP 7410. Biochemistry and molecular biology of representative bacterial, animal, and plant viruses; virus attachment to and penetration of host cells; replication, transcription, and translation of viral genes; virion morphogenesis and assembly; virus-induced host cell modifications; emphasis on structure-function relationships.

7290 Complex Carbohydrates (3)
V Prereq.: BIOL 4094. Chemistry of carbohydrates including stereochemistry, reactions, derivatization, and analysis; biosynthesis and functions of complex carbohydrates; structure and function of complex carbohydrates including polysaccharides, glucoproteins, glycolipids; immunology and receptorology.

7622 Fundamentals of Chemical Carcinogenesis (3)
S-E Prereq.: VPT 7604 or consent of instructor. Same as VPT 7622 and ENVS 7622.

7624 Toxicology II (3)
See VPT 7624.

7626 Toxicology IV: Genetic Toxicology (3)
S-E See ENVS 7626.

7648 Museum Field Expedition (6)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. One semester in the field under direction of the Museum of Natural Sciences staff.

7699 Toxicology Seminar (1)
See VPT 7699.

7800 Advanced Topics in Biological Sciences (2-4)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. May be taken for a max. of 12 sem. hrs. when topics vary. Specialized topics of current interest in the biological sciences.

7901 Departmental Seminar in Biological Sciences (2-4)
May be repeated for a max of 6 sem. hrs. of credit. Reports on specialized subjects of current interest in the biological sciences.

7902 Departmental Seminar in Biochemistry (1)
May be repeated for a max of 6 sem. hrs. of credit. Reports on specialized subjects of current interest in Biochemistry.

7921 Research Presentations in Biological Sciences (1)
May be repeated for credit. Pass-fail grading. Presentations of individual research projects in the biological sciences.

7944, 7945 Seminar in Cell Biology (1,1)
Each course may be repeated for credit.

7946 Seminar: Current Topics in Molecular Evolution (1)
Prereq.: course in evolution, genetics, BIOL 4087 or equivalent. Also offered as ENTM 7946. May be taken for max. of 6 hrs. credit when topics vary.

7978 Tropical Agricultural Ecology (1-8)
Intensive eight-week field course in Costa Rica conducted by the Organization for Tropical Studies; includes visits to various research sites to study the application of ecological principles to tropical agriculture.

7979 Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach (1-8)
Eight-week field course at research sites in Costa Rica; conducted by Organization for Tropical Studies; also offered as ENTM 7979. Complexities of tropical plants and animals and their interactions.

7990 Problems and Research (3)

7995 Independent Readings in Biological Sciences (1-3)
Prereq.: consent of instructor. May be taken for a max. of 9 sem. hrs. of credit. Directed individual readings under the guidance of a graduate faculty member.

8000 Thesis Research (1-12 per sem)
"S"/"U" grading.

8903 Microbiology for Teachers (4)
Su 2 hrs. lecture; 4 hrs. lab. Relation of microorganisms to everyday living; how knowledge of these forms is used in effective teaching of high school science and home economics.

8904 Methods of Research in Microbiology (3)
1 hr. conference; 6 hrs. lab; May be taken for a max. of 6 hrs. of credit when topics vary. Pass-fail grading.

8910 Research Participation (3)Su For high school science teachers.

9000 Dissertation Research (1-12 per sem.)
"S"/"U" grading.